MECHANICAL CHEMISTRY

The CTS 2.0 process is a patent-pending Mechanocatalytic process for converting virtually any plant, paper or wood material into its base components of sugars and lignin without the use of enzymes, liquid acid, applied heat or pressure in only a matter of minutes.

How it Works

Virtually any biomass including agricultural waste, specialty plants, wood chips and sawdust, paper, commercial and residential landscaping as well as sorted cellulose from municipal solid waste goes into the CTS Reactor with our dry powder catalyst. In just minutes and with no enzymes, liquid acids, applied heat or pressure the cellulose and hemicellulose is broken down and converted to its C5 and C6 sugars, leaving a high purity lignin as a byproduct.

The pretreatment that may be necessary is size reduction, using a very low energy shredder and/or hammermill, for capacity and convenience of loading the CTS reactors.

The CTS process differs from all other cellulose conversion technologies due to the lack of cellulose pre-treatment, liquid acids, enzymes, and long processing times. The patented mechanical process converts the carbohydrate polymers into fermentable sugars in seconds with no enzymes, no toxic chemicals, and no waste. It is truly green: there are no emissions, no use of hazardous materials, fully recycled catalysts and water, 100% renewable fuel produced, and an almost zero carbon footprint. It has worked on every kind of cellulosic material that has been tried including grasses, various types of wood, paper, farm waste, yard waste, and nut shells. Even the cellulosic portion of municipal solid waste can be converted into its components of sugar and lignin.

Lignin is produced as a co-product, and tests show that the CTS process produces chemically unmodified lignin. Lignin may have other beneficial uses as input to create carbon nanofibers or bioplastics.

We are also able to separate the xylose and may sell it as a separate co-product. Xylose is used to make xylitol, which is frequently used as a sweetener in sugarless gums. Initially, however, we will focus on producing cellulosic ethanol, diesel, and jet fuel. Later, both lignin and xylose streams can be added.

We expect to be able to produce sugar (and, hence, ethanol and other biofuels) at a much lower cost than any other cellulosic sugar in alternative processes, and even lower than corn, due to the fact that our feedstock is much less expensive.

Furthermore, because the CTS 2.0 is a mechanical/chemical process with modular design, it is clearly scalable. We are testing our 4th generation system and expect to have a 5th generation semi-commercial scale system in early 2021, and a commercial-ready system after that.